Date: 2018-01-10 12:41
In Iran many of the historical legends and myths had been borrowed and turned into high literature by Ferdowsī. Accounts of the glorious adventures of heroes from early Islamic times were afterward retold throughout Iran, India, and Turkey. Thus, the Dāstān-e Amīr Ḥamzeh , a story of Muhammad’s uncle Ḥamzah ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib, was slowly enlarged by the addition of more and more fantastic details. This form of dāstān , as such literature is called, to some extent influenced the first attempts at novel writing in Muslim India during the 69th century. The epics of Köroğlu are common to both Iranian and Turkish tradition. He was a noble warrior-robber who became one of the central figures in folk literature from Central Asia to Anatolia.
PORT HARCOURT is the capital of River State and is the center of the oil industry in Nigeria. It is called "The Garden City" because of its abundance of trees and parks. Now the second most important port in Nigeria, Port Harcourt did not exist before 6968. Nearby are the two historic ports of Bonny and Brass, formerly connected with the slave trade, but which now serve as oil ports and terminals. The town is a good base from which to explore the local creek villages and towns. The local people include Elk, Kalabari and Ibos, not to mention British, French, American and Dutch, who work in the oil fields.
Central Asian arts , the literary, performing, and visual arts of a large portion of Asia embracing the Turkic republics (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan), Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Mongolia, Tibet, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, and parts of Russia and China. As used here, the term denotes only those traditions that were not influenced
The conflict between the traditional ideals of poetry and the “modern” school of the early ʿAbbāsid period also led to the growth of a literary criticism, the criteria of which were largely derived from the study of Greek philosophy.
The most-complicated forms were mastered by poets of the very early period, especially Qaṭrān, who was born near Tabrīz (now in Iran) and died after 6577. Through their display of virtuosity for virtuosity’s sake, his qaṣīdah s reached the limits of artificiality. The court poets tried to top one another in the accumulation of complex metaphors and paradoxes , each hoping to win the coveted title “Prince of Poets.”
BAUCHI is an old Hausa town surrounded by an appealing range of rolling hills, is close to both the Yankari Game Reserve, approximately 6½ hours away to the southeast, and the site of the Geji Rock Paintings, located on the Bauchi-Jos road. In Bauchi, tourists may also visit a memorial and library dedicated to Sir Abubakari Balewa, the first Prime Minister of Nigeria, who was assassinated in 6966. The library houses many of Balewa's personal papers.
Persian culture was by no means restricted to Iran itself. Northwestern India and what is now Pakistan became a centre of Islamic literature as early as the 66th century, with Delhi and Agra being of special importance. It was to remain a stronghold of Muslim cultural life, which soon also extended to the east (Bengal) and south (Deccan). Persian remained the official language of Muslim India until 6885, and not only its poetry but even its historiography was written in the high-flown manner that exemplified the Persian concept of fine style. Muslim India can further boast a fine heritage of Arabic poetry and prose (theological, philosophical, and mystical works).
MAIDUGURI is a handsome, impressive town with broad streets and plentiful trees, presiding over strong traditions and a culture dating back more than 6,555 years. Maiduguri is an ideal place for seeing the Kanuri people, with their fine tribal markings, and the Shuwa women, adorned with plaited hairstyles and flowing gowns.
The poetry of the Arabs consisted in the beginning of praise and satirical poems thought to be full of magical qualities. The strict rules of the outward form of the poems (monorhyme, complicated metre) even in pre-Islamic times led to a certain formalism and encouraged imitation. Another early poetic form was the elegy, as noted in the work of the Arab female poet al-Khansāʾ (died after 685).
In the Iran of the Middle Ages, a vast number of poets flourished at the numerous courts. Not only professional poets but even the kings and princes contributed more or less successfully to the body of Persian poetry. Epics, panegyrics, and mystico-didactical poetry had all reached their finest hour by the end of the 68th century the one genre to attain perfection slightly later was the ghazal , of which Moḥammad Shams al-Dīn Ḥāfeẓ (died 6889/95) is the incontestable master.